Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention- Title II Grant Funds
In 1974 Congress passes the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act. The Act requires the deinstitutionalization of status offenders and non-offenders, sight and sound separation of juvenile and adult offenders in jail and correctional settings, removal of juveniles from adult jails and lockups, and an assessment of disproportionate minority contact in the juvenile justice system. These are known as the four core requirements of the Act. The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) is the federal office designated to oversee the grant funds related to the Act.
States must be in compliance with all four requirements in order to receive the full Title II grant allocation. Nebraska has gained full compliance and therefore receives the full amount available. Title II is a formula grant, thus the allocation is based on a formula using the states population, juvenile population, and various other factors. States must use these funds to gain compliance with the core requirements. Once compliance is attained, states can focus on other issues relating to juvenile justice such as substance abuse, mental health, gangs, rural issues, education, and other related topics as identified in the state Three Year Plan.
The Act requires each state to have a State Advisory Group to facilitate a Three Year Plan for juvenile justice grant funds and make recommendations on subsequent funding. The Nebraska Coalition for Juvenile Justice (NCJJ) is Nebraska’s State Advisory Group and makes recommendations on funding to the Nebraska Crime Commission who gives final approval for all funding.
Juvenile Services Grant Funds (State Funding)
Juvenile Services Grant Funds are state funds appropriated by the Nebraska Legislature and administered by the Nebraska Crime Commission. Availability of funds is announced on an annual basis and applications are accepted through a competitive grant process.
The purpose of these funds, as outlined in state statute, is to assist communities in the implementation and operation of programs or services identified in their comprehensive juvenile services plan, including but not limited to: programs for assessment and evaluation, the prevention of delinquent behavior, diversion, detention, shelter care, intensive juvenile probation services, restitution, family support services, and community centers for the care and treatment of juveniles in need of services. The Nebraska Coalition for Juvenile Justice in conjunction with the Crime Commission develops a Three Year Plan for all juvenile justice grant funds. Juvenile Services dollars are generally prioritized based on the needs identified in this Three Year Plan.
Three Year Plan
In order to receive federal Title II formula grant funding from the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, the state is required to develop a comprehensive three year plan.
The Crime Commission is required to focus on the four core requirements of the act in their plan. Three relate to compliance with the act: Jail Removal, Sight and Sound Separation and Deinstitutionalization of Status Offenders. To learn more about compliance with these three requirements see the Compliance Monitoring portion of the website. The fourth requirement is to assess and address Disproportionate Minority Contact in the Juvenile Justice System. To learn more about the DMC initiatives please see the DMC portion of the website. Nebraska is in compliance with all four core requirements. Should the state at some point not be in compliance, a portion of grant funding is lost until compliance can be regained.
2014-2016 Three Year Plan
Nebraska Coalition for Juvenile Justice (NCJJ)
The Nebraska Coalition for Juvenile Justice (NCJJ) was established in 1982, as required by the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act. The NCJJ acts as an advisory group to the Nebraska Crime Commission, and is responsible for making recommendations for federal JJDP Act and JAIBG funding. Additionally, the group members assist in developing the comprehensive three year plan, monitor existing juvenile justice programs and issues, and advocate to improve the system and educate others on juvenile justice issues. Members are appointed by the Governor and represent a broad cross section of citizens and professionals.
The goal of the Coalition is to improve all aspects of the juvenile justice system in the State of Nebraska by assisting communities and the state with planning and implementation of systemic improvements, advocacy, education and recommending award of JJDP Act funds for such purposes. The purpose of the Coalition is to improve the lives and future of children, youth and families involved in the juvenile justice system.
Disproportionate Minority Contact (DMC)
What is DMC?
Disproportionate Minority Contact, or DMC, originally referred to the overrepresentation of children of minority races and cultures in confined settings, but the definition now includes the overrepresentation of minority youth at each point in the juvenile justice system.
For the most part, it is not that our systems are intentionally biased, but our systems may well be inadvertently biased. It is vital that we begin examining how we view families and their circumstances within their unique culture.
How do we know if there is overrepresentation?
Most over representation occurs when the percent of individuals served in the system is larger than the percent in your community. For example, if African American youth make up 5% of your community, but 30% of youth in detention are African American, then African American youth are over-represented at six times the population rate.
Why does overrepresentation occur?
Confinement vs. contact. We have begun to look at “overrepresentation” by the number of contacts youth have with our juvenile systems. It is clear that over-representation starts much earlier than the point when a youth is confined. Do more minority youth commit offenses that warrant being detained? Is it that minority youth entering the system have a longer history of juvenile offenses and are more likely to be detained? Some might argue this, but research indicates that this isn’t the case.
Socio-economics can place an offender at a disadvantage because the family’s situation affects a variety of factors: whether a family has legal representation, whether a parent is able to attend appointments and court hearings during daytime hours, whether the family has a phone, whether they have transportation to services and court dates. Language barriers may also lead to certain groups being over-represented. If a family does not understand the juvenile justice process, the individual explaining the process or an important legal document- like a summons- the youth frequently ends up further entangled in the juvenile justice system than necessary.
Why should we address this?
In 1992, Congress reauthorized the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act and substantially strengthened efforts to address over-representation of minorities in our juvenile systems. Although Congress had originally addressed DMC in the 1988 Act, the efforts in 1992 elevated the status to a “core requirement”. Other “core requirements” include the deinstitutionalization of status offenders, removing juveniles from adult jails and lockups, and the sight and sound separation requirement.
States (and consequently counties and cities) must remain in compliance with the DMC requirement or risk losing a portion of the State’s Formula Grant Funds. The Nebraska Coalition for Juvenile Justice, an advisory committee to the Nebraska Crime Commission, has an active sub-committee and part time coordinator dedicated to moving the states DMC initiatives forward. The Mission Statement of the committee is:
To promote awareness of problems that are impacting minority youth/adolescents involved with or at risk of involvement with the juvenile justice system in Nebraska, and to aggressively support resolutions designed to address the problems affecting these populations.
Please contact the Crime Commission for the DMC Committee and Nebraska's coordinator information.
- DMC Evaluation
- 2010 Nebraska RRI
- 2010 Cherry County, Nebraska RRI
- 2010 Colfax County, Nebraska RRI
- 2010 Dakota County, Nebraska RRI
- 2010 Dawes County, Nebraska RRI
- 2010 Douglas County, Nebraska RRI
- 2010 Hall County, Nebraska RRI
- 2010 Lancaster County, Nebraska RRI
- 2010 Madison County, Nebraska RRI
- 2010 Platte County, Nebraska RRI
- 2010 Sarpy County, Nebraska RRI
- 2010 Saunders County, Nebraska RRI
- 2010 Scottsbluff County, Nebraska RRI
- 2010 Thurston County, Nebraska RRI
The Nebraska Crime Commission is responsible for monitoring Nebraska’s compliance with the federal Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (JJDP) Act. The JJDP Act is a federal law governing the incarceration of juveniles in detention and correctional facilities, including juveniles placed in a secure area or locked room of a facility or a program pursuant to public authority.
Quick Reference Guide for Jails/Lock-ups and Detention Centers
This is a Quick Reference Guide for detaining juveniles in (Urban) Adult
Jails/Lock-ups, (Rural) Adult Jails/Lock-ups, Juvenile Detention Centers,
and Court Holding Facilities. The Guide is broken up page-by-page in
regards to whether the juvenile is a Non-Offender, a Status Offender, or a
Juvenile Delinquent. There is also a list of definitions if you are unsure
as to what type of juvenile you are dealing with or what your facility is
classified as. Please contact the Juvenile Compliance Montor at the Crime Commission if there
are any questions about the detention of juveniles in your facility.